Roc – Rozzo: “Since the 13th century it was the centre of the Glagolitic literature, typography and printing activity”
During the Venetian domination Roc was always considered a key castle for the defence line of the Venetian part of Istria. It was an important frontier point in the wars with Austria and against the invasion of the Turks.
After the Venice fell, Roc followed the destiny of other Istrian towns and was ruled by the Austrians, later on by Napoleon for a short period of time, and again by the Austrians until the end of the First World War. Between the two World Wars Roc was ruled by Italy and after the Second World War became part of Yugoslavia (Croatia).
During the Italian Fascist period in Istria many Istrian families suffered from the regime or had to leave Istria. Fascism in Istria applied various repressive measures mostly towards Slav populations and this created the Antifascist Movement. The Second World War was a very painful experience for the Istrian population and many innocent Istrians, both Slav and Latin, died during that war.
After the second World War Roc became part of Yugoslavia (Croatia). There were three agreements between Yugoslavia and Italy which established that Istria would become a part of Yugoslavia: Paris Agreement of 1947, London Memorandum of 1954 and the Osimo Agreement reached in 1975. In the first decade after the Second World War many Istrians, especially those living in towns and villages that for centuries were part of the Venice Republic, decided to leave Istria.
In 1991 with the fall of Yugoslavia and the founding of the Republic of Croatia, the internal republic boundaries were recognised as the state boundaries and Roc is today part of Croatia.
In 2013 Roc became part of the European Union. You can not change the past but you can try to learn from it. The main aim of the European Union founders was to build a system that could avoid future wars and future refugees in Europe as I explain in COSMOPOLITE.